Sunday, May 24, 2020

Hip Hop Nationalism Essay examples - 944 Words

Jason Chanthorn Christopher y West African American History from 1865 Journal Article- The State of Rap: Time and Place Hip hop is a form of art that has been popular for the past twenty years. Although people in recent years often mistake rap music as vulgar and ill-mannered, the hip hop community continues to provide a great way to channel emotion and soul into their music. In his article, â€Å"The State of Rap: Time and Place† Jeffrey Louis Decker illustrates the black nationalism within the hip hop community by exploring how Black Nationalism can be accounted for within the hip hop music. Before hip hop was introduced into the American culture, the black community felt as if their place of origin was Africa. This was the time†¦show more content†¦Eventually hip hop artists later regarded themselves by the name hip hop nationalists. In the sixties, self proclaimed hip hop nationalist rapper Paris debut his album, The Devil Made Me Do It, which sent a message on how he plans on building the black nation. From his tracks Panther Power to The Hate That Hate Made, Paris made sure that his audience knew he associated with the Black Panther Party. During 1988, hip hop marked a landmark on rap music history ever since MTV promoted their hip hop program called Yo, MTV Raps! and within the same year a hip hop group, Public Enemy, released their second album, It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back, which gave the black nationalist its first publicized expression for two decades. The multiple times the black community was socially mistreated, hip hop artists continued to voice their opinions. I believe hip hop is great to voice an opinion and promote self worth. Ordeals such as the Rodney King case sparked a huge outrage within the black community. Decker mentions in the article that during the Rodney King trial, the white officers from LAPD have been acquitted by an all-white jury charged for the brutality of Rodney King (Decker 2008, 55). Ice Cube was called in for an interview, yet he declined because of the ties he has made with the black community. Situatio ns such as the Rodney King trail provided aShow MoreRelatedWhat Has Hip Hop Ever Done?1331 Words   |  6 PagesWhat has hip-hop ever done to you? There has always been one style of music that has interested me greatly-hip-hop. Hip-hop has four different elements to it: rap music (vocal), turntablism (DJ-ing), b-boying (dance/physical) and graffiti art; out of the four I think rap music has had the greatest impact on the world for it has influenced us socially, culturally and politically. However, over the years I realize that hip-hop music hasn’t had the same impact on the world, becoming main stream. SoRead MoreThe Impact Of Hip Hop Music On America1491 Words   |  6 Pagesdescended from all African culture and tradition. Today, Hip-hop music in America is generally considered to have been pioneered out of New York s South Bronx in the early 1970’s by a Jamaican-born DJ Herc. By the time mid-1970s, New York s hip-hop gained wide-spread popularity and the scene was dominated by seminal turn-tablists DJs Grandmaster Flash, Herc and Afrika Bambaataa. The rappers of a group named â€Å"Sugarhill Gang† prod uced hip-hop s first commercially successful hit, Rapper s DelightRead MoreHip Hop Culture And Culture1196 Words   |  5 PagesHip-Hop Culture and race have had a complicated relationship in the past two decades. It has been commonly referred to as â€Å"black music† and a reflection of black culture. However, recent studies done by the Mediamark Research Inc. showed that 60% of rap music buyers are white. With the emergence of white, Latino, Asian, and other rappers with diverse backgrounds on the Hip Hop scene it is important recognize the changing color of the genre and the stereotype it holds as â€Å"black music†. Black cultureRead MoreThe Bronx Of New York City990 Words   |  4 PagesLatino residents. As a response to the systemic racism that these communities faced, young black men became vocal about their communities’ issues through the use of hip hop music. Thus, it was during this time that hip hop became a rising platform; and was predominantly i nfluenced by the Black power movements which promoted black nationalism, liberation and empowerment as a response to systemic anti-black racism. This platform allowed many young black men to address and vocalize the issues that affectedRead MoreHow Hip Hop Affects Society Essay2136 Words   |  9 PagesIt has been 30 years since Hip-Hop was first â€Å"introduced† to the world. Whether it be fashion or politics, this musical genre/culture plays a huge role in everyday life and has generated billions of dollars across the globe. In this paper I will be discussing when, where, and how Hip-Hop was created, â€Å"old school Hip-Hop, â€Å"Hip-Hop’s Golden Age†, â€Å"Hardcore rap† â€Å"Gangsta rap†, â€Å"G-Funk†, 21st century Hip-Hop, and how Hip-Hop affects society. First, we must take note that all AfricanRead More Hip Hop Music Culture Essay2168 Words   |  9 Pages This essay aims to examine the importance of the Hip-Hop culture in 21st century society. It will begin with consideration of the history of Hip-Hop, discussing its stylistic adaptations, cultural preferences and concerns, referring to the studies of black culture by Ellis Cashmore and Mark Neal. Within this I will explore the ethnicity and authenticity of the culture, with reference to last years Popular Music and its Cultural Context unit. The essay will then move on to evaluate the culture’sRead MoreDestroying The Culture : Music Is A Form Of Expression1963 Words   |  8 Pagescompares it to a jungle filled with drugs and poverty. Throughout the song, they wonder how they are able to endure the issues and remain sane. These songs served as templates and influenced many artists in that era and some current ones today. As hip hop and rap continued to gain popularity and become accepted, new artists began to emerge with songs containing political, social, and cultural messag es, creating the â€Å"golden age† from 1986-1994 (Mcquilliyah). African American artists refused to succumbRead MoreThe Golden Era Of Hip Hop Was A Period In The 80S And Early1014 Words   |  5 Pages The Golden Era of Hip Hop was a period in the 80s and early 90s characterized by its diversity, innovation, and cultural influence. Hip Hop is considered to have been born in 1973, in South Bronx, New York by Jamaican-born Kool DJ Herc (Blanchard, B, 1999). He used a turntable technique at a Halloween party, which eventually became extremely popular at every party scene. The term â€Å"breakdancing† came to life shortly after. Rhymes over hip hop music, also known as rap, began first as a commentaryRead MoreThe Pulse Of The People1245 Words   |  5 Pagesresearch is based upon pop culture, political behavior, black women and politics, political attitudes, African-American politics and public opinion (Georgia State University). While attending she attended Ohio State she became acquainted with the â€Å"Hip-Hop: Behind the Music Conference†, Coordinator of ‘Sisters for Success’, where she served as a President for the black graduate and professionals of the student caucus (Georgia State University). Publications Dr. Bonnette has published are: Pulse of theRead MoreThe Relationship Between Politics And Hip Hop Music Essay1570 Words   |  7 PagesRap and Rebellion: The Relationship Between Politics and Hip-Hop Music The rap subculture is widely agreed to have been established in the Bronx, New York during the 1970’s. At a time when block parties became popular, especially among African-American youths, hip-hop music was a means of expressing opinions and values and as a new source of communication. At these gatherings, DJs would play percussive breaks from popular songs, often on two turntables to enable them to extend these breaks. This

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

An assessment of the importance of infrastructure investment in the... - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 25 Words: 7363 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Declaration of originality Abstract Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "An assessment of the importance of infrastructure investment in the" essay for you Create order Table of contents List of tables? List of figures? Acknowledgements CHAPTER 1 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" INTRODUCTION Rationale for the research Research Aim Research Objectives Outline Methodology for the research Dissertation Contents CHAPTER 2 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Monetary Policy A review of the Construction Industry in the UK Economy Introduction to Infrastructure Works What is infrastructure? Types of infrastructure A review of Public and Private Investment within the infrastructure sector CHAPTER 3 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" RESEARCH DESIGN METHODOLOGY 3.1 CHAPTER 4 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" DATA COLLECTION ANALYSIS Introduction Case Study Analysis CHAPTER 5 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" CONCLUSION The Dissertation Aim Research Objectives Personal Recommendations Limitations of the Research Further Research Acknowledgements In 1999, I completed the 1st year of the full-time Quantity Surveying course at Glasgow Caledonian University before moving to America in 2001. After a five-year stay, I returned to Glasgow in September 2006 and re-enrolled in the Part-time Quantity Surveying course. Ten years on from the first experience of the QS course, it gives me great pleasure and pride to be submitting one of the last pieces of work in the honours year. It has been an amazing and unexpected journey. I would not be in this position if it were not for the incredible levels of support and encouragement shown by so many and would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge some of these people. First, I would like to thank Raymond McCafferty Michael Heggarty of Cruden Building Renewals for employing me and giving me this opportunity. Their continued support and encouragement throughout this process has given me the focus and drive to continually improve my work. My colleagues at Cruden also deserve a special mention for their support during the dissertation and without the laughs during the day; this process would have been so much more difficult. Thanks guys!!! I would also like to thank Halbert Mills at Glasgow Caledonian University for accepting me back into the course and believing that I had the potential to get to this stage. During the course of this dissertation, I had some challenging times when I felt like I did not know how to develop my chosen topic. I would like to give my sincere thanks to my supervisor, Dr. John Lowe, for his inspirational input when I had these difficulties. Unfortunately, I cannot name everyone but I want to thank all my friends and family who without their support I would never have completed this piece of work. Mum, Dad, Gran, thank you so much for everything. Finally, the love and support shown by my Wife, Brooke, during this process has been a major source of inspiration. We will both be glad when the late night studying and completing of projects is finally over. Peter McLellan 1. Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Rationale for the Study à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Infrastructure forms the economic backbone of the UK. It is the fabric that defines us as a modern industrialised nation. The standard and resilience of infrastructure in the UK has a direct relationship to the growth and competitiveness of our economy.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Skinner, 2010) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“For the UK to retain its competitive edge, a longer-term view of investment in infrastructure must lead policy making.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Stewart, 2009) This dissertation offers an opportunity to explore and research a highly topical issue. The United Kingdom finds itself still in the midst of one of the worst economic downturns in recent memory and in a period of fiscal consolidation. As a result of this depressed economic situation, difficult decisions have had to be made by all sectors within the UK to work together to drive the country out of the recession. The recent edition of the Economic and fiscal Strategy Report and Financial Statement and budget by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, highlights the importance of implementing measures that will promote sustainable growth. Despite modest growths to GDP of 0.4 per cent in the final quarter in 2009 (NSO, 2010), the general consensus is that the United Kingdom is in the early stages of recovery. The 2010 budget, called à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Securing the recoveryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, outlines ways in which it aims to support this vision. One of these policies, is to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“invest in infrastructure, including additional funding for transport and local roads and creating a Green Investment bank.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (UK Budget, 2010) Also, the Eddington Report, published on 1 Dec 2006, was a study jointly commissioned by the Secretary of State for Transport and the Chancellor of the Exchequer. Its role was to analyse the long-term relationships, within the boundaries of the Governmentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s wider commitment to sustainable development, between transport and the UKs growth, stability and economic productivity. The findings of this study will be discussed and compared to the investment required to meet the future demands of the UK. Furthermore, in a recent study carried out by the British Chambers of Commerce (BCC), it revealed that inadequate energy, transport, and communications infrastructure continues to reduce the opportunity for UK businesses to grow. It also outlines that during this period when businesses play a vital role in the recovery of the economy, productivity is being affected as a result of lack of capacity, thus restricting the UKà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s economic potential. (BCC survey, 2010) In response to the survey carried out in 2010, David Frost, the Director general of the BCC stated the following: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“A countryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s infrastructure is crucial to the success of its businesses. In the current environment of economic uncertainty and public spending constraints, our energy, digital, and transport networks must be up to the job if business is to deliver growth and create employment.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? The intriguing situation that the UK Government now face is deciding the best way to stimulate economic growth without increasing the deficit. One of the issues with increasing deficits is the Government will have to borrow to service the debt. As a result of the world-banking crisis over the last few years, there is reluctance to increase the UK debt further and therefore this might have an impact on infrastructure investment in this country. This dissertation provides an opportunity to research the level of infrastructure required in the UK and review the part it plays to the long-term sustainable growth of the UK economy. Furthermore, in doing so, the author intends to see if further investment in Infrastructure wo rks is viable in the current economic climate. 1.2 Aim The aim of this dissertation is to assess the importance of infrastructure investment in the United Kingdom and how this impacts on the long-term sustainable growth of the UK Economy given the current economic constraints. 1.3 Objectives To review Fiscal and Monetary policy theories available to the UK Government. To review the current and future demands for infrastructure works in the UK. To understand the level of importance of infrastructure work investment to the UK economy. To understand the roles, responsibilities and options available to public and private bodies in raising capital to invest in infrastructure works in the UK. To highlight the economic and social benefits gained as a result of increased investment in chosen infrastructure sectors by utilising hypothetical cost model projections. 1.4 Outline Methodology of the Research 1.5 Dissertation Contents Chapter 2 Provides an extensive Literature review on the topic area. The author will provide a general overview of economic theory, introduction to infrastructure, and a review of the relevant studies published worldwide that reveal intellectual thoughts on infrastructure investment impact on the economy. This will be carried out in the way of both descriptive and an analytical approach to all the appropriate literature sourced to aid in this dissertation. Naoum (2007) states à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“It is descriptive in that it describes the work of previous writers and it is analytical in that it critically analyses the contribution of others with a view of identifying similarities and contradictions made by previous writersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. According to Naoum (2007), the literature review will serve two purposes. First, it allows for gathering of information to allow development of issues and themes within the chosen topic that ultimately shape the research design. Second, the literature review will help form the basis of the research design by analysing previous research designs. Chapter 3 Chapter 3 introduces the reader to the numerous research techniques available to the author and will highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each and merits of each approach, before indicating the chosen methods of quantitative analysis technique Chapter 3 examines the various research techniques that were available to the author and describes the strengths and weaknesses of each of the approaches in respect to the available data. In particular this chapter presents the reasoning behind the authorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s decision to adopt the quantitative analysis technique and explains how this approach was applied. This chapter also describes the source of the data and highlights any potential bias or limitations that the author experienced within the analysis. Furthermore this chapter explicitly explains the process for selecting and categorising the appropriate data prior to analysis in a consistent manner. John Hannah paragraph Chapter 4 Chapter 4 builds upon the process described in the previous chapter and examines the primary source of data to assess what trends are evident with each of the particular categories. This section goes on to expand upon the original quantitative analysis and examine a series of quantitative case studies to assess the extent of early warning events and compensation events that occurred on completed projects. John Hannah paragraph Chapter 5 In conclusion, chapter 5 summarises the findings of this research and consider if the original aim and objectives have been achieved. Finally, this chapter discusses the authorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s findings and proposes a list of recommendations for future studies. John Hannah paragraph 2. Chapter Literature Review 2.1 Introduction à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The purpose of research is to make a contribution, however small, towards understanding the phenomenon being studied and ultimately towards the total body of knowledgeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Parahoo, 2006) The intended purpose of the following literature review is to provide a general background to the chosen topic that will aid in the understanding of the following areas: How the UK Economy functions and what factors drive it. Description analysis of previous research on the impact of infrastructure investment on the economy. The role the construction industry plays in the UK Economy. The information presented within the literature review will enhance the readerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s knowledge of the topic with a view of providing clarity and understanding on the findings presented in chapter 4. Economic Theories à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“There are conflicts of opinion on economic theory. For instance, monetarists argue that rises in the money supply cause inflation whereas Keynesians argue that it is changes in inflation which cause changes in the money supplyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Stanlake Grant, 1995) Keynesian Economics John Maynard Keynes was a British economist whose ideas have been a central influence on modern macroeconomics, both in theory and practice. He advocated interventionist government policy, by which governments would use fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of business cycles, economic recessions, and depressions. His ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as Keynesian economics. Keynes solution to poor economic state is to introduce impetus spending or as the US President Franklin Roosevelt described, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"prime the pumpà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. Keynes argues that the government should step in to increase spending, either by increasing the money supply or by actually buying things on the market itself. A supporter of Keynesian economics believes it is the governments job to smooth out the bumps in business cycles. Intervention would come in the form of government spending and tax breaks in order to stimulate the economy, and government spending cuts and tax hikes in good times, in order to curb inflation. Alternative Economic Theories Since Keynesian economics advocates for the public sector to step in to assist the economy generally, it is a significant departure from popular economic thought, which preceded it à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬  laissez-fair capitalism. Laissez-fair capitalism supported the exclusion of the public sector in the market. A number of laissez faire consequences are drawn from Says law. Say also advocated public works to remedy unemployment. Say argued against claims that business was suffering because people did not have enough money and more money should be printed. Say argued that the power to purchase could be increased only by more production and is also best known for coining the phrase supply creates ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s own demand (Curwen, 1997) James Mill used Says Law against those who sought to give economy a boost via unproductive consumption. Consumption destroys wealth, in contrast to production which is the source of economic growth. The demand for the product determines the price of the product, but not if it will be consumed. Alternatively, Keynes is an advocate of trying to stimulate consumption by government intervention. Views on Economic thoeries Cutting support now, as some are demanding, would run the real risk of choking off the recovery even before it started, and prolonging the global downturn. (Darling, 2009) If consumers, markets and businesses get the message that government wants to carry on spending and isnt serious about dealing with the deficit, they will start to conclude that the UK is no longer a safe place to invest in, spend in or build a business in, (Cameron, 2009) Importance of Construction industry to UK Economy A recent survey commissed by the UK Contractors Group and carried out by LEK Consulting to demonstrate the impacts of the Construction industry on the UK Economy was distributed September 2009. The main aim of this report was to specifically highlight the benefits of investing in construction. The report covered 3 main areas: Contribution of the construction industry at national and regional level. Key contribution that construction makes to national employent levels. The role that the construction industry plays in the broader economic and social objectives. The reports contention is that the construction industry is vital to the overall UK economy while still being in a recession as it provides the following: Construction is a major contributor to the UK DGP. Construction sector employs circa  £3m people throughout 300,000 firms. Construction is also an important driver for other sectors, without which there would be a loss of domestic production capacity and skills. The report, Construction in the UK economy: The Benefits of Investment, shows that construction is the best sector for stimulating employment. It also shows that every  £1 spent on construction leads to an increase in GDP of  £2.84, as the spending not only creates construction output worth  £1, but also stimulates growth elsewhere in the economy worth  £1.84. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“With the Chancellorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Pre-Budget Report looming, the CBI is continuing to press the case for protecting capital spending by government.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (John Cridland, CBI Deputy-Director General, 2009) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“A strong economy needs fit-for-purpose schools and hospitals, and it will be the construction industry that builds the new transport and energy infrastructure needed to shift to a low-carbon economy. (John Cridland, CBI Deputy-Director General, 2009) Introduction to Infrastructure Works Infrastructure investment impact: Previous Research Over the last 30 years there have been various economic models developed to help in the research of the impact of infrastructure investment on the economy. The in-depth empirical studies have mainly utilised macro-economic level data, which includes cross-state and cross-country data. (Straub, 2007) edinburgh paper According to the studies carried out by Aschauer (1989) he states that when analysing the importance of public investment to the productivity improvement and economic growth, added weight must be attributed to the public investment decisions made by the Government. Furthermore, the study indicates increased productivity and growth in the economy by investing in areas such as highways, sewers, streets, and water systems. To ascertain these findings, Aschauer took the average annual growth rates of total factor productivity and the non-military public capital stock in America over the period 1950-1985; Aschauerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s data indicated a close relationship between level of investment in non-military infrastructure and productivity. Put in Tables from study Further research in the United States carried out by Munnell (1990) analysed the impact of the stock of public capital on economic activity at the regional and state levels. In conclusion, Munnell found that the US states that had invested in infrastructure had greater output, increased levels of private investment, and high levels of employment growth. The study highlighted above, Aschuer (1989) estimated an elasticity of output with respect to public infrastructure capital in the United States during 1950-1985 of between 0.38 and 0.56. These results have been shown to be econometrically suspect and subsequent work suggests the elasticity is much smaller. The average elasticity across OECD countries for the period 1960-2001 has recently been estimated to be 0.2 (Kanps, 2004). Aschauers paper has, however, proved very fruitful in terms of subsequent research, which it stimulated. (Crafts Leunig, 2005) A number of empirical studies have looked at the relationship between all public infrastructure investment and GDP growth. On average these studies seem to indicate a positive elasticity of output to public capital of around 0.20. Put another way, a ten per cent increase in public capital stock increases GDP by around 2 per cent. (Eddington report 2006) The eddington report suggest that there are limitations to these empirical studies and the results should be viewed with caution. OECD (2003) argues that early empirical work on the link between infrastructure investment and economic performance overstated the magnitude of the impact on GDP and productivity growth (The sources of economic growth in OECD countries, OECD, 2003) In particular, studies that focus on public investment in capital and infrastructure in a broad sense, rather than on transport specifically, do not really distinguish between types of investment in terms of new build, upgrade, maintenance etc although some do make specific conclusions about the value of transport infrastructure investment. Later studies using more complex modelling suggest a positive, albeit weaker relationships between infrastructure and GDP. These include: Kocherlakota and Yi (1997), Demetiades and mamuneas (2002), Oà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢Fallon (2003), and Nijkamp and Poot (2004). (see figure 1.5 eddington report 2006) In 1993, Easterly and Robero carried out further research to expand on the work in this field. Called Fiscal Policy and Economic Growth: An Empirical Investigation, it details several conclusions that support the findings expressed by Aschauerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s research in 1989. It tackled areas such as the rate of growth and the level of development by employing historical data and recent cross-section data. The main findings outlined that there is a strong relationship between a countries fiscal structure and the development level and that investment levels in communication and transport is consistently correlated with growth. This therefore indicates that infrastructures are important in the economic prosperity of a nation (Easterly, Robelo 1993). Put in reference Eisner (1991) highlighted that public infrastructures not only serve as an intermediate good in physical goods production, they can also be final consumption goods. For example, water and sewage systems benefit environment, better transportation saves time spent on travelling, public parks give people pleasure, etc. Canning, Fay, and Perotti (1994) found substantial effects of physical infrastructure on economic growth based on the international data set. The strategy for national infrastructure also states, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The majority of empirical research indicates that there is positive relationship between infrastructure and economic growthà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (strategy for national infrastructure, 2010). Introduction to Infrastructure What is Infrastructure? Set-up in December 2009 to help meet the infrastructure requirements in the UK for the next 10-20 years, Infrastructure UK defines Infrastructure as key economic sectors which include: Water, Waste, Energy, Transport and communications (strategy for national infrastructure, 2010). Infrastructure networks enable people, goods, energy, information, water, and waste to move efficiently around the UK and, in some cases, across its borders. The extent, capacity and quality of these networks has a direct bearing on the economy of the UK, the environment and the quality of life of everyone who lives in or visits the UK. Infrastructure Studies in the United Kingdom Extensive research carried out in the United Kingdom has indicated the level of infrastructure required for each sector and this can be cross-referenced with studies highlighted in the previous section. For example, the findings from the research carried out by Eisner, 1991 and Easterly, Robero 1993 indicated a relationship between transportation and its impact on the growth of the economy. The Eddington report was published on the 1st December 2006 and was carried out by Sir Rod Eddington under the instruction of the UK Government. The report is an examination of the impact transportation decisions will have on the UK environment and economy. The report analyses the current global economic demands and how our current transportation infrastructure must meet the demands of the 21st century. It states that with rising population and resultant greater demands on the country, higher levels of congestion and issue with reliability will have adverse effects on the economy if the correct infrastructure is not in place. It contends that by not having the required infrastructure in place it costs businesses more money while also effecting peopleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s social environment (Eddington Report, 2006). As well as utilising the Eisner, Easterly and Robero findings, the Eddington Report drew on research carried out in more recent times. The studies used in the development of the Eddington Report comprised: The historical significance of Transport for Economic growth and Productivity (Crafts Leunig, 2005), Step change transport improvements (Mann, 2006), and transport and labour market strategies (Gibbons Machin, 2006) Assessing transports contribution to the economy Transport can impact on the performance of the economy in a number of different ways: Transports impact on GDP à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Transport can impact on the economy and will ultimately impact on overall output. Gross domestic product (GDP) is currently the best measure of the size of the economy as it measures the total value of goods and services provided. Transport can have an impact on economic output (GDP) thorugh two channels: Firstly, transport can affect GDP though a number of inputs that are used, for example transport may increase employment either by allowing greater access to labour or stimulating the creation of new firms, which can increase the number of goods and services produced and lead to an increase in GDP. Secondly, transport can improve the efficiency with which firms use inputs, in other words transport can have an impact on productivity. For instance, a well functioning transport network can raise productivity by redusing journey times. Transport investment can impact on the drivers of productivity by encouraging prictae investment through raising its profitability; facilitating labour mobility and thereby increasing the returns in investment skills; and enabling effective competition even when economic activity is geographically dispersed. Identifying the impact of transport on productivity is important because improving productivity is a key to determinant of long-term growth and living standards. These effects can either have a one à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"off effect on the level of productivity or a sustained impact on the growth rate of productivity. Transport can impact on the growth rate of productivity by stimulating innovation through its impact on agglomeration economies, trade and foreign direct investment. In practice these dynamics are very difficult to measure, but are nevertheless extremely valuable, as they determine how quickly the economy grows and therefore the rate of growth in GDP. Transports role in supporting quality of life Critically though, GDP measures alone fail to capture the impacts of transport on the environment or its contribution to the wider well being of society. Transports impact on the environment, for example through carbon and other emissions, can increasingly lead to unsustainable growth, as well as impacting on peoples quality of life. Transport improvements that free up wasted travel time allow people to spend more time with friends and family, and enjoy more leisure activities. An economic welfare measurement would seek to measure such broader impacts of transport on society and the environment rather than just a pure GDP measure. These benefits to general well being are known as economic welfare, or welfare. The use of existing transport networks: What benefits do provide Erenburg (1994) finds that policy measures that make more efficient use of existing transport infrastructure through pricing mechanisms or other traffic management solutions can have a significant impact on growth (linking public capital to economic performance, Erenburg, 1994) Hulten and Schwab (1996) estimate that a 1 per cent increase in infrastructure effectiveness would have an impact on growth seven times larger than a 1 per cent increase in the rate of public infrastructure investment. (the public capital hypothesis: The case of Germany, Hulten and Schwab, 1996) OECD/ECMT (2001) paper on the benefits of transport concludes that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"wider economic benefits may be achieved more efficiently by introducing prices which correspond more closely to costs, or by reallocating existing infrastructure more efficiently between users, or by adopting other transport policies. (Assessing the benefits of transport, European Conference of Ministers of transport, OECD, 2001) Victoria transport policy institute (2003) argues that investment in alternative modes of transport and in management strategies to encourage more efficient use of existing road capacity tends to provide greater economic benefit than expanding existing highways to reduce congestion. The study also argues that the benefits of transport improvements are heavily dependant on local circumstances, in that they will only increase economic development where inadequate transport is a significant constraint on economic activity. EVIDENCE OF CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR TRANSPORT TO IMPACT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE ECONOMY Caning and Fay (1993) assert that infrastructure should not be seen as a factor of production but as a condition for high growth. Kessides (1993) notes that infrastructure does not create economic potential; it only develops such potential where appropriate conditions exist, i.e. other inputs such as labour and capital are available to drive output growth. Indeed, lynde and Richmond (1993), Trinder (2002), and Oà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢Fallon (2003) assert that public and private capital are complements; that physical infrastructure requires the existence of available productive private capital in order to realise economic growth potential, and that infrastructure investment can boost the productivity of such private capital. Infrastructure investment may also feed through to increased labour productivity. Canning and pedroni (1999), banister and berechman (2000), Trinder (2002) and Oà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢Fallon (2003) highlight other important underlying conditions that will influence the impact of transport investment on the economy (SEE REFERENCES FIGURE 1.7 EDDINGTON REPORT) In summary, these include: Economic conditions, a stable macroeconomic policy climate, local market circumstances, agglomeration, and labour market conditions Investment conditions; available funds, timing and structure of investment, type of infrastructure investment, location of investment in terms of network structure and political and institutional conditions, decision making, planning, sources, and methods of finance, level of investment, supporting legal and organisational policies and processes, and method and governance of infrastructure delivery and provision. Funding and delivery mechanisms for UK national infrastructure The National Infrastructure is funded and delivered in a number of ways: Commercially driven, user-paid infrastructure e.g. unregulated airport and ports where it is for the developer to decide what and when infrastructure is built. Any developments is then paid for by consumers (but prices are not regulated because competition exists) Commercially driven, user paid but price-regulated infrastructure with a stronger role for Government. Regulated airports are an example. Government supports investment in additional capacity but this is a commercial decision for airport operator (and where prices are regulated to protect from monopoly power). The energy sector also largely follows this model but prices are set by the market or thorough Government intervention. Price regulated businesses where independent regulators play a stronger role in determining the level and nature of investment. For example, water, where the regulator has an input into the nature of the investment programme but infrastructure investment in funded by users. Price regulated business that is funded by the taxpayer and users e.g. Network Rail. This is a model where the business is funded both by users and taxpayers where the DfT have a central role in setting out the outputs it wants from the railways and the level of funding to achieve that. The regulator sets the efficiency targets and prices for the company. Publicly decided and publicly funded infrastructure e.g. roads. Government decides where they should go, when they should be built and pays for them. This may include some provate finance but ultimately government rather than users pay. Clearly Government enjoys much greater control over infrastructure, but only a small part of the overall picture. Infrastructure essential for supporting economic activity and growth Many key investment projects rely on private finance either as direct investment or through mechanisms such as PPPà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s. In the current economic climate the Uk faces stiff competition in securing investment à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" from private investors and from within Government budgets. In this environment, there needs to be a clear vision from Government about the future and needs for infrastructure. This will be essential to persuade the provate sector to invest in the national infrastructure and, in particular, provaste sector investors need long-term certainty in order to judge whether to commit major funds. Chapter 3 This chapter gives a brief description of the methods used for collecting independent data and why they are relevant to the research objectives. Research Strategy Quantitative à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Quantitative research is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"objectiveà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ in nature. It is defined as an inquiry into a social or human problem, based on testing a hypothesis or a theory composed of variables, measured with numbers, and analysed with statistical procedures, in order to determine whether the hypothesis or the theory hold trueà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Cresswell, 1994). This statement is expanded on further by Bouma and Atkinson (1995), who state à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Quantitative data is, therefore, not abstract, they are hard and reliable; they are measurements of tangible, countable, sensate features of the world.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? When endeavouring to find information on concepts, attributes and collating factual information and evidence on the relationships of these facts in order to appraise a theory or hypothesis, a quantitative research method should be employed. Qualitative à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Qualitative research is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"subjectiveà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ in nature. It emphasises meanings, experiences (often verbally described), description and so on. The information gathered in qualitative research can be classified under two categories of research, namely, exploratory and attitudinal.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) As explained by Dr Naoum, qualitive research can be split into two areas of research, firstly à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“exploratory research is used when you have limited amount of knowledge about your topic. Here, the interview technique is usually selected as a method of data collectionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) and secondly à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“attitudinal research is used to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"subjectivelyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ evaluate the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"opinionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"viewà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, or the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"perceptionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ of a person, towards a particular object. The term à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"objectà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ is referred to as an à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"attributeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"variableà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"factorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ or a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"questionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. (Naoum, 2007) It is also essential to remember that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“the data gathered under the qualitative research can later be à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"quantifiedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ to some extent but a qualitative approach tends to value the data as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"qualitativeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Coolican, 1993) Data Collection Within this dissertation, options for the main source of data collection include surveys and interviews, which have been selected due to the nature of the research topic and information, required to complete the report. Generally, data collection can be split into two categories of fieldwork, which is the primary data collection and desk study, which is secondary. Fieldwork à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The term à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"fieldwork researchà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ refers to the methods of primary data collection used by the researcher and attention should be paid not be confused with the definition of field research as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"the study of people acting in the natural courses of their daily livesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?(Naoum, 2007) This form of research can be broken down into three main approaches: Survey Case study Problem-solving approach. Experimental or observational approaches can also be used for research purposes, however, these methods require to be carried out over long periods and there is more responsibility for detailed outcomes. The survey approach à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Surveys are used to gather data from a relatively large number of respondants within a limited time frame. It is thus concerned with a generalised result when data is abstracted from a particular sample or population. There are two types of surveys available: the descriptive survey and the analytical survey.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The descriptive survey aims to answer such questions as: How many? Who? What is happening? Where? And When? It deals with counting the number of respondants with certain opinions/attitudes towards a specific object. The counting can be later analysed to compare or illustrate reality and trends.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The analytical survey aims to establish relationship and association between the attributes/objects of your questionnaire, i.e. how often an attribute is associated with another attribute within the sample questionnaire.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) Case study approach à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Case studies are used when the researcher intends to support his/her argument by an in-depth analysis of a person, a group of persons, an organisation or a particular project. As the nature of the case study focuses on one aspect of a problem, the conclusion drawn will not be generalised but, rather, related to one particular event. This is not to say that the case study approach is of limited value. On the contrary, it provides an in-depth analysis of a specific problemà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) Within the case study approach, there are three types of case study approach, which can be utilised to provide evidence or information on the given topic. The three types are descriptive, analytical and explanatory case studies. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The descriptive case study which is similar to the concept of the descriptive survey (i.e. counting), except it is applied on detailed case(s).à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The analytical case study which is similar to the concept of the analytical survey (i.e. counting, association and relationship), except it is applied on detailed case(s).à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The explanatory case study, which is the theoretical approach to the problem. It explains causality and tries to show linkages among the objects of the study. In other words, the researcher collects facts and studies the relationship of one set of facts to another, with the hope of finding some casual relationship between them.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) Problem solving approach à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“With the survey and the case study approach, the researcher tends not to affect or interfere with that which is being studied. In the problem solving approach (also named action research), the researcher reviews the current situation, identifies the problem, gets involved in introducing some changes to improve the situation and, possibly, evaluates the effect of his/her changes.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) Secondary data collection Not unlike primary data collection which is taken first hand, secondary data collection is established from literature searched and as such is classed as a desk study. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The most significant of the advantages of the secondary data are related to time and cost. In general, it is much less expensive to use secondary data than it is to conduct a primary research investigation. This is true even when there are costs associated with obtaining secondary data. When answers to questions are required quickly, the only practical alternative is to consult secondary sources.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Stewart Kamins, 1993) Data collection techniques Further to the decision of how data is to be collected and the method of research to be used, we are able to evaluate the best technique of data collection. Initial proposals for this research dissertation for the main form of data collection include both a quantitative and a qualitative approach. Structured interviews will be one of the highlights of the research topic, as this will source primary data from industry professionals. Postal Questionnaires are also a popular method to be considered. Postal Questionnaire à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The postal questionnaire is probably the most widely used data collection technique for conducting surveys. It is most suited to surveys whose purpose is clear enough to be explained in a few paragraphs of print, in which the scheme of questions is not over-elaborated. Postal questionnaires have been widely used for descriptive and analytical surveys in order to find out facts, opinions and views on what is happening, who, where, how many or how much.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) The use of postal questionnaires, have three main advantages of economy, speed and consultation, which have been outlined as follows: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Economy. Postal questionnaires are perceived as offering relatively high validity of results because of their wide geographic coverage. As a result, it is more suited to assembling a mass of information at a minimum expense in terms of finance, human and other resources.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Speed. Postal questionnaires are certainly a quick method of conducting a survey. If administered properly, the bulk of the returns will probably be received within two weeks. However, time must be allowed for late returns and responses to follow-up attempts.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Consultation. In certain cases respondants may not have the information to hand, particularly when the questions are of a quantitative nature, and may need to consult a document or a colleague in order to give accurate answers.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) Although there also limitations to using postal questionnaires, mainly that they must contain simple questions, inflexible technique, accuracy, no control over responses and industry fatigue. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Must contain simple questions. The postal questionnaire is only suitable for simple and straightforward questions, which can be answered with the aid of easy instructions and definitions. The questions should be very carefully worded and free from faults such as ambiguity, vagueness, technical expressions, difficult questions and so forth.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?(Naoum, 2007) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Inflexible technique. Inflexible in the sense that postal mail questionnaires do not allow the opportunity for probing. In other words, the answers have to be accepted as final and there is no opportunity to clarify ambiguity or to appraise the non-verbal behaviour of respondants, though the latter can sometimes create bias.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Accuracy. Respondants may answer generally when you are seeking a response on a specific level of analysis. People may also answer according to what they think you want to hear. They may answer according to their public profile rather than the underlying corporate reality.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“No control over respondants. This means that although you state in your questionnaire that a particular person should complete the questionnaire (such as marketing director, managing director or the site agent), there is no guarantee that this statement will ensure that the right person completed the questionnaire. However, this is less of a problem than not getting a response at all, given the fact that response rates for postal surveys usually range between 40 and 60 percent.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Industry fatigue. Companies receive a steady stream of questionnaires and pressures of modern business mean that for many organisations and individuals, studentsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ questionnaires are of less priority.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) Personal interview à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The personal interview is another major technique for collecting factual information as well as opinions. It is a face-to-face interpersonal role situation in which an interviewer asks respondants questions designed to elicit answers pertinent to the research hypothesis.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) Using the interview technique can sometimes only be suitable if it is undertaken under certain circumstances, for example, knowing the interviewee so that you know only to ask what is important and how to ask it. Also interviewing people with the same characteristics, so that they are both looking at the question from the same perspective. Performing an interview is also essential if the questions need to be explained or described, as well as being able to probe the answers given by each correspondent, as to why that response was given or feel the way they do about a specific aspect. As with the questionnaire technique, they are some variables that need to be considered, as to the structure of the interview as these can take three forms, namely unstructured, structured or semi-structured. However, this does not mean that only one form needs to be utilised, as the interview can be a combination of all three. Unstructured interview à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“This form of interview uses à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"open-endedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ or à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"openà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ questions and the questionnaire is often pitched at a very general level so that the researcher can see in what direction the interviewee takes things in their response. It is usually conducted with qualitative research. Unstructured interviews can also be conducted at the beginning of any research (also known as exploratory interviews) when the researcher knows little about his/her subject area.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) Semi-structures interview à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“This is more formal than the unstructured interview in that there are a number of specific topics around which to build the interview. This form of interview uses à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"openà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"closed-endedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ questioning but the questions are not asked in a specific order and no schedule is used. Your task is to discover as much as possible about the specific issues related to your subject area.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) There are four characteristics of a semi-structured interview, as stated by Merton and Kendal (1946): à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“It takes place with respondents known to have been involved in a particular experience.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“It refers to situations that have been analysed prior to interview.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“It proceeds on the basis of an interview guide specifying topics related to the research hypothesis.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“It is focused on the respondentsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ experiences regarding the situations under study.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Semi-structured interviews start by asking indirect questions in order to build up a rapport with the respondent and then explore the specific issues that the interviewer has in mind.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) Structured interview à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“In the structured interview, questions are presented in the same order and with the same wording to all interviewees. The interviewer will have full control on the questionnaire throughout the entire process of the interview. In this technique the questioning may start with some à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"openà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ questions, but will soon move towards a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"closedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ question format.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) There are three main advantages of using the structured interview method, as it allows for more accurate answers, a higher response rate and the interviewee can be probed as to why they were gave the answers, they did. Data Analysis Once all data has been collated, the process of analyse all the information begins, and again this can be categorised into three forms of data analysis, namely exploratory, descriptive and inferential statistical methods of analysis. Exploratory data analysis à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Exploratory research is a qualitative research and can be described as a social or organisational behaviour research which produces results that are not obtained by statistical procedures or other methods of quantification. This type of data analysis refers to research about peopleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s lives, their stories and behaviour, and it can also be used to examine organisations, relationships and social movements. Some of the data may be quantified afterwards, but the analysis is qualitative.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) This form of analysis, allows people to express there own views or opinions on a subject, and so is generally used to analyse the data from open-ended questions. Furthermore, by using the exploratory form of data analysis, we are able to code, similar answers into categories and record the information obtained from carrying out questionnaires and interviews. Descriptive statistics method à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The descriptive statistics method is the simplest method of analysis which provides a general overview of the results. It gives an idea of what is happening. The descriptive method will either analyse the responses in percentages (as in the case of a large sample) or will contain actual numbers (as in the case of a small sample).à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) Descriptive statistics method can also be further categorised into three sections of frequency distribution, measurement of central tendency and measurement of dispersion. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“When summarising large amounts of raw data it is often useful to distribute the data into categories or classes and to determine the number of individuals or cases belonging to each category. This is called à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"category frequencyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. It can be presented in the form of tabulation, a bar chart, a pie chart or a graph.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Measurement of central tendency. This type of analysis is applied when you have a group of data and you wish to find the most typical value for the group, or the score which all other scores are evenly clustered around. These statistics are known as the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"meanà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"medianà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ and the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"modeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Many survey analyses entail the comparison of results for different parts of the sample, for example the proportion of traditional contracts that overrun on time with the proportion of design and build contracts that overrun on time. In this case one might carry out a statistical significance test of the difference between the proportions.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Naoum, 2007) CHAPTER 4 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" DATA COLLECTION ANALYSIS References Bouma G.D. Atkinson G. B. J (1995), A Handbook of social science research, Oxford University Press, Oxford Cresswell J. (1994), Research Design: Qualitative Quantitative Approach, Sage, London. King, M. (2009) speech to CBI Dinner at Nottingham, 20.01.2009, online at https://www.bankofendland.co.uk/publications/speeches/2009/speech372.pdf. Naoum Dr S. G. (2007), Dissertation Research Writing for Construction Students, Second Edition, Elsevier, Oxford. Stanlake G.F Grant S.J. (1995), Introductory Economics sixth Edition, Longman Group Ltd, London. Stewart, J. (2009) partnership UK statement 2009 on investmesnt Stewart D. W. Kamins M. A (1993), Secondary Research: Information Sources and Methods, Sage, London. Skinner à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" strategy for national infrastructure 2010 Parahoo, K. (2006) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Literature reviewsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? from Parahoo, K., Nursing Research: Principles, process and issues. Pp. 121-147, Basingtoke: Palgrave National Statistics Organisation à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" 0.4% GDP https://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=192

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Little Albert Free Essays

Assignment One – Mini Lit Review. The Little Albert Study. Not everyone believes that biology is our destiny. We will write a custom essay sample on Little Albert or any similar topic only for you Order Now Many scientists whole-heartedly believe it is our experiences in life that count. They believe that it is our up-bringing, education, and our environment that form our behaviour, beliefs and characteristics. Chief among scientists in this field of thought is psychologist John Watson. Watson developed a theory that we are not restricted to our genetic make-up, but instead we arrive into the world as a blank slate and all our information is learned. There is continuous dispute over this theory with the nature nurture debate strongly in play (McLeod, 2007). On the nature side of the debate, it is believed that individual’s differences are determined by their unique genetic make-up. They argue that all other characteristics that develop later in life are caused by maturation (McLeod, 2007). The other side is nurture which John Watson strongly supports. This side says that we come into the world as a blank slate and through experiences our slate is gradually filled (McLeod, 2007). To support the theory that environment is more powerful than genetics, Watson designed an experiment on an infant commonly known as the Little Albert experiment. This experiment focused on Ivan Pavlov’s process of classical conditioning. Watson believed and wanted to prove that all human psychology can be explained by this process (McLeod, 2008). The other studies that I will be comparing the Little Albert experiment to will be â€Å"Elevated fear conditioning to socially relevant unconditioned stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder† (Lissek, Levson, Biggs, et all, 2008) and the study of Pavlov’s dogs (Pavlov, 1928). These studies will enable me to make a justified evaluation of the Little Albert study by making comparisons to these two other studies. The Little Albert experiment was conducted by John Watson and Rosalie Rayner in 1920. They chose nine month old Baby Albert for the study because Albert had been reared almost from birth in Harriet Lane home for Invalid Children where his mother was a wet nurse. Albert was deemed extremely stable and well developed which determined his suitability for the experiment (McLeod, 2007). The focus of their study was to continue on from Pavlov’s experiment involving the classical conditioning of dogs, and determine whether this empirical evidence was also evident in humans (Watson, 1924). More specifically, they were focusing on conditioned emotional responses. In determining these aspects they conducted a series of different tests involving a variation of stimulus. Before the experiment commenced, they gave Albert a sequence of baseline tests to determine his initial fear responses to stimuli. They presented him with burning paper, a monkey, a dog, cotton wool, a fur coat (seal), various masks and a white rat. During the baseline, Albert showed no initial fear to these items. Throughout the study these items (fluffy white objects) served as the independent variables. The dependant variable was whether or not Albert cried or showed distress. During the study Albert was positioned on a mattress on a table. Albert was presented with a white rat and just as he reached out to touch it, a metal bar was struck with a hammer behind him. Albert jumped and fell forward, burring his head into the mattress, but did not cry. After these two stimuli were paired on several occasions, Albert was presented with only the white rat. As the rat appeared in front of him he became distressed and turned away, puckered his lips, began to cry and crawled away (Watson, 1924). From this, it became obvious that Albert’s fear had been conditioned. Albert had associated the white rat with a loud noise producing fear, thus having conditioned fear of the white rat. The experiment showed that Little Albert generalized his response from furry animals to anything furry. Albert showed the same reactions as the initial experiment when Watson presented him with a furry dog, seal-skin coat and even a Santa-Claus mask (Watson, 1924). The way in which Albert’s responses were measured was through the amount of distress to the stimuli he presented. The Little Albert study is a highly popular study especially across the field of Psychology. Although the study has provided valuable knowledge and understanding of learned behaviours and the development of phobias, it’s procedures considering ethics are questionable. The fact that Albert was only nine months old deems this study unethical. Albert’s mother was obviously desperate for money to support her son, so the bribe of money probably out-weighted the possible harm caused to her son. Albert’s mother probably wasn’t entirely aware of the potential risks involved. Albert’s fear was supposed to be extinguished at the end of the experiment, but he moved away. Other ethical codes that have been violated in this study are that of the distress that it caused. Little Albert was never desensitized from the conditioning undergone meaning that because he had a conditioned fear of white furry objects, he would forever be terrified of white furry objects (Watson, 1924). In today’s code of ethics, the welfare of the participant/s is the most important factor and under no circumstances should this protection be hindered, unless the participant has given consent to be put under this distress. It is also now deemed unethical to purposely cause distress to a participant in laboratory circumstances (Weiten, 2008). These unethical procedures could have been corrected quite simply. In the study of fear conditioning in people with social anxiety disorder, they conducted what called an extinction process where the participants were desensitized from any fear conditioning that took part throughout the experiment (Lissek, Levson, Biggs, et al, 2008). This experiment is clearly ethical as it was only conducted in 2008 and would have had to have been passed by the ethics board in order to be conducted. The Little Albert study is a valid study; however it was not measured effectively. The way in which Little Albert’s fear was measured was just whether or not he cried or showed distress. The way in which they measured this could have been improved in order to get more valid and reliable results. In this case, the studies operational definition was not valid. The Little Albert study could have used apparatus in order to get more valid results. For example, they could have measured Albert’s fear by assessing his skin conductivity. This would have measured Albert’s distress through measuring the arousals in his skin i. e. weat. They also could have used the blink-startle response measurement as used in â€Å"Elevated fear conditioning to socially relevant unconditioned stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder† (Lissek, Levson, Biggs, et al, 2008). This method measures how much the participant blinks when presented with a stimuli. If the participant is startled (scared) by something, they will blink a lot more than if they are not startled. The re liability of the Little Albert study is not strong. If the same study was conducted today, the same results would not be found. Little Albert’s responses to the stimuli that he was presented with could have been a result of his general fear of animals, not that he conditioned a fear of white fluffy objects. Most people would agree with me when I say that if you were a nine month old baby and an animal was jumping up at your face, you would be scared and would become distressed. Being a nine month old baby, Albert also could have just been tired, bored, and hungry or just missed his Mother. None of these factors were accounted for during the trials. If the same study was conducted today, it would become extremely obvious that times have changed and so too should the design of the study. The reliability of the experiment is hindered by the fact that the method of measurement is simply observation and there is no concrete evidence being analysed. For example if they were to measure brain activity or use the blink-startle reaction measurement, these results would be a lot more concrete and therefore the study would be classed a lot more reliable. In comparison, the 1928 study of Pavlov’s dogs (Pavlov, 1928) is a lot more reliable even though it is only a few years newer than the Little Albert study. If Pavlov’s experiment was replicated today, very similar if not the same results would be found. The fact that Pavlov used concrete methods of measuring his data deemed his study a lot more reliable. If he was to measure the amount that the dogs salivate by just observing them, it would not be as valid. To conclude, through the evaluation of the Little Albert study and comparison to â€Å"â€Å"Elevated fear conditioning to socially relevant unconditioned stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder† (Lissek, Levson, Biggs, et al, 2008) and Pavlov’s dogs (Pavlov, 1928) it has come to my attention that the Little Albert study does not comply to today’s code of ethics, the reliability is not strong and could be improved on however it is a valid study, but the operational definition could be improved. I feel that the contributions to knowledge of conditioned fear are valuable to society and has proved useful in various situations and other studies. Future studies on this topic would prove extremely valuable to society and our understanding on fear conditioning. References McLeod, S. A. (2007). Simply Psychology; Nature Nurture in Psychology. Retrieved 3 April 2012, from http://www. simplypsychology. org/naturevsnurture. html McLeod, S. A. (2007). Simply Psychology; Pavlov. Retrieved 3 April 2012, from http://www. implypsychology. org/pavlov. html McLeod, S. A. (2008). Simply Psychology; Classical Conditioning. Retrieved 3 April 2012, from http://www. simplypsychology. org/classical-conditioning. html Pavlov, I. P. (1928). Lectures On Conditioned Reflexes. (Translated by W. H. Gantt) London: Allen and Unwin. Watson, J. B. Rayner, R. (1920). Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 1, pp. 1–14. Weiten, W. (2011). Psychology: Themes and Variatio ns. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. How to cite Little Albert, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Oil Price and Demand Changes

Question: Discuss about the Oil Price and Demand Changes. Answer: Introduction There exist a relationship between the change in price for goods and the change in demand. This relationship is the main concern to be considered in this paper. Oil prices has fluctuated and had fallen to very low levels due to the increased oil production in the US (shale oil) from 2008. Furthermore the biggest oil producers have not been willing to welcome a production cut, they have been doing this as a pricing strategy to kick some players out of the market. It can therefore be concluded that the oil market is an oligopoly market where players have control for both prices and quantities. The price has gone down and the demand for oil increased; this relationship is referred to as the price elasticity of demand (PED). In 2015, the decrease in oil price resulted in a small increment in the demand for oil. This means that the demand for oil is not much responsive to price changes. I.e. it is inelastic to price changes as shown in the graph below. Since the elasticity of demand is less than one, the demand is inelastic meaning that demand has changed slightly after a big change in price (McEachern, 2016). I agree on the opinion on PED expressed in source 1. The reason I base my argument on is that in fact even if the demand for oil did not go up significantly, at least the falling prices stimulated some demand increment. At lower prices, more oil was consumed compared to the initial consumption when the prices were high. My advice to an oil producer would be to increase prices so as to gain more revenue since there will be an insignificant reduction in demand (Johnston, 2015). This is explained by the inelasticity of demand for oil. Below is graphs on an oligopoly market. Hermawan (2014) argued that price cuts will result in revenue fall since other firms will follow. The oil price has been low and remained low for a long time since OPEC did not embrace the decision to cut production so as to enable producing firms to raise the prices. The announcement of the decision to cut production in 3rd December 2016 resulted in the oil price going up for the first time in some few years. This was meant as a strategy to revise the price upward. Demand laws hold that when supply is high, prices falls. On the other hand, when supply is low, prices rise. References Hermawan, J. (2014). Joko Hermawan's Blog. Jokohermawan14.blogspot.co.ke. Retrieved 21 January 2017, from https://jokohermawan14.blogspot.co.ke/ Johnston, M. (2015). Oligopolies | econfix. Econfix.wordpress.com. Retrieved 21 January 2017, from https://econfix.wordpress.com/tag/oligopolies/ McEachern, W. (2016). Economics: A Contemporary economics (1st Ed.). Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning. Riley, G. (2012). Unit 1 Micro: Revision on Elasticity of Demand (for Rice) | tutor2u Economics. tutor2u. Retrieved 21 January 2017, from https://www.tutor2u.net/economics/blog/unit-1-micro-revision-on-elasticity-of-demand-for-rice.

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Sugar and Slave Trade Dbq free essay sample

Sierra Escobedo Sugar and slave trade Sugar is filled with sweetness, but the sweetness of sugar was covered up by the saltiness of sweat. Sugar has been started all over the world, from the labor from Africa, markets from Europe and its origins in Asia. The sugar and slavery trade included Africa, Asia and Europe. This was called the triangular trade. Demands, land, capitol and labor were things that drove the sugar and slave trade. One thing that drove the sugar trade was the demand for sugar. Demand is the key point to any business because without the consumers want for the product there would be no business. In 1800, Benjamin Moseley writer of A Treatise on Sugar With Miscellaneous Medical Observations (doc6) explains that the increased consumption of the demand for sugar and the reason for the increase of consumption for sugar was because of taste. Which makes sense because the more people consume the sugar the demand will increase and if people consumed less sugar the demand would decrease. We will write a custom essay sample on Sugar and Slave Trade Dbq or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The chart thats adapted from Ralph A. Austin and Woodruff D. smith, from Private Decay as Public Economic Virtue Tooth (doc 2) shows the growth of British sugar consumption like in 1700 the sugar import was 280. and in 1770 it increased to 1,379. 2. Also in the chart it shows that the population number has increased and a bigger population meant that the consumption and import number to grow. The analysis of document 2 is: a chart adapted from Ralph A. Austen and Wooodruff D. Smith, from the Private Decay as Public Economic Virtue Tooth that was published by the Duke University press in 1990 and is a secondary source. Ralph A. Austen and Woodruff D. Smith are relatable because they are both professors and they both have to be tolerant to be good professors. Also since this is a chart, there really cant be an opinion. It would be helpful to have a business book from a merchant that imported sugar because it would be useful to know to know how much a merchant would import and sell because it would show the demand of the sugar and the consumption and it would also be helpful if it was a different European country that wasnt England. The demand for sugar helped drive the sugar and slave trade but it also helped capital too. Land and capitol also helped drive the slave and sugar trade. Land provides raw materials for every product mankind has ever created or consumed and the capitol refers to sums of money or assets put to productive use. Document A shows a colonial map of the Caribbean. In this map it shows which country ruled what colony. This shows which country owned what land mass. And since Cuba, Dominique Republic and Puerto Rico were great to grow sugar and it was important to know who ruled over them. Sydney W. Mintz, writer of Sweetness and Power: the Place of Sugar in modern history says that sugar became the sweetener to tea, coffee and chocolate and with tobacco and rum it brought competitors for british preference. Since capital refers to sums of money or assets put to productive use the capital would make sure people would buy sugar. 985, Sydney W. Mintz point of view is not bias but is straight forward and shows facts. It would be useful to have a map of a sugar industry because it would help to know who a sugar industry would like since its using the land for the sugar industry. To make the sugar there is a need for labor. Without labor there is no one to make the sugar and without workers to make the sugar there is no business. 1763, John Campbell (doc 4) states that the inhabitants of the sugar colonies were made up of whites and African slaves. And since there was a demand for sugar there was a need for more workers. Since Europeans wanted cheap labor it equaled into slaves because you didnt need to pay slaves. At first the Europeans tried to make Native Americans work but the Native Americans couldnt handle it because they werent immune to the diseases from the Old World so it caused Africans to be slaves. Samuel Dickers wrote a letter to a member of Parliament (doc 3) that says that there were a hundred thousand slaves in just the island of Jamaica. The African slaves were brought to what was called the middle passage. First a slave would be separated from their family and friends then they were forced to march to costal pens, which 30% of them died then into the middle passage which had poor hygiene, dysentery, diseases and bad treatment. The responds were suicide or mutiny on ships. The mortality percent was up to 20% in the middle passage. Over 20 million were in the middle passage but only 12-13 million slaves made it. As a resident of many years in the island of jamaica, samuel Dickers (doc 3) seems trustworthy because he has lived in Jamaica for awhile and he would know how it looks and also its from that time period. It would be useful to have an autobiography or a diary from a slave that survived the middle passage or from Olaudah Equiano because it would show how the slaves were treated. It would make sense as a young African slave to write about their experiences because it would show how bad the were being treated. Demand, land, capital and labor were things that drove the Sugar and slave trade. Demand: the want for the sugar, land and capital: raw materials and sums of money or assets put to productive use, labor: slavery. The sugar and slave trade changed the world for many years. Without the sugar trade there wouldnt be a slave trade.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Top Man essays

Top Man essays In the story Top Man; JR Ullman proves that Nace is the Top Man. He went on a dangerous journey on K3. He will to give his life to save another. Nace also have determination to go on to the mountain that took his friend. Can you image what the setting in this story must be like? Just think, mid 20th century, a huge mountain, K3, exceeding 28,000 feet, shutting out half of the sky. A mountain with no other mountain higher in British India, one of highest in the surrounding area. Sweeping glaciers running up the mountain, with enormous snowdrifts. What seems like 100 vertical cliffs, and one sharp and jagged spine. You could almost feel the soft snow and it hear the avalanches. It was cold enough to take off your nose. Then there is a grope of advancers with Osborn and Nace it was obvious of the tension between them. Nace and Osborn are the main characters that are racing to the top of K3. The internal conflict is who is the top man/the leader. K3 is the external conflict. The rising actions of the story starting when Osborn saw the mountain first, then argued if they should use their sleeping bags for the first night. Nace has also came within 500 feet of the peak of K3, but had to turn back. Another rising action is the location of the camps. Camp one and two are on a glacier, camp three is also on the upper end of the glacier, Camp four is 2,000 feet farther up the mountain from camp three, and camp six is 26,500 feet from the base of the mountain. A storm moves in and it pass over in three nights. There are two groups; the first group consists of 11 people Nace, Johns, eight porters and myself. The second group consists of ten people Osborn, Wittmer and eight porters. Osborn has been finding new shortcuts. Osborn left in the middle of the night by himself to try to make it to t he top. Nace and myself caught up to Osborn the next day, they found him stan ...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Effect of Mexicos Automotive Industry on North American Economies Essay

Effect of Mexicos Automotive Industry on North American Economies - Essay Example The paper tells that Mexico has emerged as one of the leading recipients of manufacturing investments including in the automotive industry. In fact, according to Bureau of Economics and Business Affairs, Mexico has gained a foothold in the world and has jumped to be the eighth world producer of automobiles in the world. Among the two dominant North American economies, Canada and the United States, the latter has been the leading source of foreign direct investment in Mexico.   As a matter of fact, up to fifty percent of FDI in the first 9 months of the year 2012 were from United States investors. according to Keenan, Canada has continually fallen behind both Mexico and the United States in the auto industry over the years. Reduced investment in Canada’s auto industry has seen the investment being redirected towards the Mexican economy. In effect ballooning the Mexican economy and hurting the Canadian economy.   Major Investors in the Canadian economy are from the United St ates, and hence when they transfer their investments to another economy they shatter one and hurt the other, the effect, the Canadian economy is reeling from. Two reasons can be attributable to such an effect, first, unlike Mexican labour market, the Canadian market just like the United States labour market is very expensive and therefore employers undergo more operational costs. Secondly, Keenan, remarks that the Canadian dollar has hurt the economy, affecting its competitive position. The Mexican peso has provided not only the United States investors with favorable opportunities to make more profits, but also the Asian and European auto giants.